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Automatic Chrono Watches
Chrono Spain A Chronograph timepiece has a movable crown, a start button operable to start and stop measurement of a time period in a chronograph mode using at least one chronograph hand, and a reset button operable to reset the chronograph hand to a zero position.
A control circuit controls operation of the start button and the reset button in a plurality of reset modes to return the chronograph hand to the zero position in accordance with whether the reset button has already been operated when the crown is operable from one position to another position. Chrono Spain Watches Chronograph Timepieces Stopwatch online
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MUSIC THERAPY FOR PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM CHRONIC PAIN
EVALUATION OF AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH
Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists longer than the temporal course of natural healing, associated with a particular type of injury or disease process.
The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage." Pain is subjective in nature and is defined by the person experiencing it, and the medical community's understanding of chronic pain now includes the impact that the mind has in processing and interpreting pain signals.
THOMAS K. HILLECKE
AIM OF INVESTIGATION:
Interdisciplinary therapy is most effective in the treatment of chronic pain (Flor, 1992). During the last years music therapeutic approaches in the treatment of chronic pain gain attention and some research projects started to evaluate these approaches. In the project CHRONOS pain patients are treated by physicians trained in special pain therapy and music therapists using the Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy for Patients Suffering From Chronic Pain (Hillecke, Bolay 2000). The goal of CHRONOS was the evaluation of the treatment effectivity of the Heidelberg Model.
By using a randomised controlled design with 20 patients in an experimental group and 20 patients in a waiting list control group the clinical trial is evaluated. Included statistical methods are parametric (e.g. t-Tests, Analysis of Covariance) and non-parametric tests, prepost - analysis and comparison of both groups as well as the method of clinical significance (Jacobson NS, Truax P, 1991). Respecting the subjective experience of chronic pain the focus of the measures are self-ratingdata of patients using reliable and valid psychological questionnaires.
Significant results in the pre-post-condition and group comparison condition can be demonstrated in pain measures (visual analogue scale, Schmerzempfindungs-Skala). Using measures of psychotherapy research (OQ45.2) significant results are observed in the pre-postcondition. These results are not only statistically significant but also clinically significant.
Music therapy applied in an interdisciplinary context is an effective possibility to help patients suffering from chronic pain by reducing pain severity and psychological distress.
Flor, H., T. Feydrich, et al. (1992). “Efficacy of multidisciplinary pain treatment centers: a metaanalytical review.” Pain 49: 221-230. | Hillecke, T. and H. V. Bolay (2000). “Musiktherapie bei chronischen Schmerzen – theoretische Grundlagen – das Heidelberger Modell.” Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 35: 394-400. | Jacobson, N. S. and P. Truax (1991). “Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59(1): 12-19.
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